Osteopetrosis: A rare hereditary disease characterized by an increased density of bones. It appear to result from impaired osteoclast function .Radiographically,one sees increased opacity with loss of cortically –medullary differentiation as well as a widening of the diaphysis and metaphysis resulting in an Erlenmeyer flask deformity .Increased brittleness can result in a multiple fractures and loss of marrow space can cause anemia .A severe form of a disease is probably inherited as an autosomal dominant trait .Bone marrow transplantation has recently been used for treatment .Also known as AlbersSchonberg Disease
Osteoporosis- A common bone disorder characterized by decreased density of normally mineralized osteiod .The etiology includes involutional osteoporosis ,known as type I(or postmenopausal ), and Type II(or aged related).Osteoporosis can also have less common causes,e.g, a secondary symptom to disuse ,drugs, dietary deficiencies, chronic illiness,neoplasm,endocrine abnormalities, genetic disorders, and idiopathic problems found in adolescents and middle aged males. It is characterized by bone fragility (vertebral fractures, and colles’s fractures)
Osteomalacia- Disturbance in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus that results in impaired and decreased mineralization of osteiod (increased osteiod;prolonged mineralization rate, slurred mineralization front). A variety of underlying disorders may result on osteomalacia, including nutritional deficiency of vitamin D and other vitamin D disturbances, renal disorders, and congenital errors in metabolism.Patiencts generally present with diffuse bone pain, generalized weakness, and malaise.Radiographically, diffuse osteopenia is seen as noted or angular deformities on long-standing disease.