Saturday, December 22, 2012
Thursday, December 20, 2012
Unhealthy lifestyles combined with a ton of stress are making more and more people vulnerable to heart attacks. Here’s a low-down on signs and symptoms of a heart attack.
Often people expect a heart attack to be dramatic like it is in the movies. But in reality — most often — that is not the case. This article thus spells out the signs and symptoms of a heart attack.
What happens during a heart attack?
During a heart attack, the blood flow to the heart muscle is either reduced or completely stops. This typically happens because of a blood clot that is blocking an artery.
When the heart muscle does not get oxygen-rich blood, it ceases to work.
When the heart muscle does not get oxygen-rich blood, it ceases to work.
Some common heart attack symptoms:
· A heart attack often causes chest pain.
· There is a feeling of fullness or a clasping pain in the centre of the chest. Most victims describe the pain as akin to an elephant standing on the chest (extreme pain). It usually lasts for about 15 minutes.
· One also experiences shooting pain in the shoulders, neck, arm, back and sometimes even the teeth and jaw.
· One finds increasing episodes of chest pain.
· Prolonged pain in the upper abdomen.
· Shortness of breath.
· The victim might experience heavy sweating.
· Since the heart’s pumping action is severely impaired during a severe heart attack, the victim might lose his/her consciousness.
· Nausea and vomiting
· In rare cases, as in patients who are diabetic, the heart attack may not be very painful, and sometimes can even be entirely painless.
Other heart attack symptoms
The elderly, diabetics, people on steroids as well as women are less likely to have obvious symptoms like severe chest pain (as often seen in men). These are some symptoms they are likely to have:
· Pain in the abdomen
· Heart burn
· Sweaty skin
· Unusual tiredness
· Dizziness or light-headedness
· Tightness or pain in the neck, shoulder or upper back
Heart attack symptoms are not the same for all…
Not everyone who has a heart attack has the same symptoms. Many a time, we also tend to ignore a heart attack thinking it might be mere abdominal discomfort due to gas pains or indigestion. If you have more than a few symptoms listed above, then you are likely to be having an attack. Get emergency help immediately.
What to do in case of a heart attack?
· Rush to a hospital: If you recognise that you or someone around is having a heart attack, get immediate medical help.
· Give Disprin (Asprin): As soon as you recognise it is an attack, crush a disprin, dissolve it in water and make the person drink it.
· Emergency numbers: Every office and home must keep a list of emergency numbers like that of an ambulance service, hospital.
A heart attack is different from a cardiac arrest
Do not confuse a heart attack with cardiac arrest. In the case of a cardiac arrest, the heart suddenly stops. It occurs due to an electrical disturbance that obstructs the heart’s pumping function, which results in stopping blood flow to the rest of the body.
Saturday, December 15, 2012
Thursday, December 13, 2012
In Africa, an estimated 60-80 million people are living with disabilities today.
USAID missions throughout sub-Saharan Africa, and elsewhere, provide financial and technical assistance to people living with disabilities, including those who were disabled as a result of war and conflict. Disabled people are estimated at 10 percent of the general population, but possibly as high as 20 percent of the poor.
The vast majority of Africans with disabilities are excluded from schools and opportunities to work, virtually guaranteeing that they will live out their lives as the poorest of the poor. School enrollment for the disabled is estimated at no more that 5-10 percent. For many begging becomes a sole means of survival.
Every day in Africa, many people are disabled by malnutrition and disease, environmental hazards, natural disasters, traffic and industrial accidents, civil conflict and war. And according to Rehabilitation International, it is estimated that 350-500 people worldwide become amputees each day due to landmines that they encounter while walking, farming, or playing.
The number of people living with disability in Africa is increasing. Factors that contribute to the growing number in Africa include:
· Birth defects
· Population growth
· Ageing population
· Environmental degradation
· Injuries at home, work and on the roads
South Africa signed and ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its optional protocol in 2007. Furthermore, the South African Constitution specifically enshrines equality for persons with disabilities under Article 9(3). Yet, it is not clear how the current bill will take this nation closer to full implementation of the Constitution and the Convention. While the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs commented upon the coming into force of the Convention in 2008, that South Africa “has committed itself to removing all barriers faced by persons with disabilities,” this bill is easily assailable for not living up to this statement. There is a great need to foster the establishment of a South African disability studies literature and to promote the views of disabled people.
The South African Disability Alliance (SADA) is a body that is made up of the twelve national organisations that represent disability in South Africa. This organisation was formerly known as the Federal Council on Disability and has now been reconstituted to be a body of consensus, and the voice of the disability sector in South Africa.
The 12 SADA national organisations are:
· Autism SA
· Epilepsy SA
· Cheshire Homes
· Down Syndrome South Africa
· Disabled People South Africa (DPSA)
· Disabled Children's Action Group (DICAG)
· Deaf Federation of South Africa (DEAFSA)
· The QuadPara Association of South Africa (QASA)
· South African Federation for Mental Health (SAFMH)
· South African National Council for the Blind (SANCB)
· National Association for Persons with Cerebral Palsy (NAPCP)
National Council for People with Physical Disabilities in South Africa (NCPPDSA)
Any vision for the future of Africa must include people with disabilities, who constitute "a significant percentage of the community anywhere in Africa. People with disabilities have a lot of potential to take part in the development processes of their countries, yet they are in most cases excluded from most of the development programs. However, some people with disabilities in Africa are taking control of their future, according to the UN body African Decade of Person With Disability. It says, "Africa will be leading the world in numbers of disabled entrepreneurs."
Wednesday, December 5, 2012
Thursday, November 29, 2012
The word "Disabled" is the clear preference in contemporary American English in referring to people having either physical or mental impairments, with the impairments themselves preferably termed disabilities. In the UK Disabled is a definition laid down in law in the DDA and also by the Equalities Acts.
Disabled (Adjective) - (of a person) Having a physical or mental condition that limits their movements, senses, or activities eg. facilities for disabled people, the needs of the disabled. Of an activity, organization, or facility eg. Specifically designed for or relating to people with such a physical or mental condition.
Disabled (Noun) - (used with a plural verb) - Physically impaired people considered as a group, eg. "the physically disabled"
When most people think of the word "disability" they immediately picture someone in a wheelchair. But there are many different types of disability.
People with a disability may include:people who are blind or partially sighted
-people with learning or intellectual disabilities people who are deaf or hearing impaired
-people with a physical disability
-people with long term illnesses
-people with mental health or psychological difficulties
-people with an acquired brain injury
According to the World Health Organization, a disability is…"any restriction or lack (resulting from any impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being"
A disability includes those that:
- are present, or
- once existed but don't any more, for example, a person who has had a back(spine) injury, a heart attack or an episode of mental illness, or
- may exist in the future, for example, a person with a genetic predisposition to a disease, such as Huntington's disease or heart disease or a person who is HIV positive, or
- someone thinks or assumes a person has.
It is likely that some of the young people who already use your service are young people with disabilities.
"Language is critical in shaping and reflecting our thoughts, beliefs, feelings and concepts. Some words by their very nature degrade and diminish people with a disability"
The term "disabled young person" tends to convey a message that the only thing worth mentioning about a person is their disability. It is better to say "young person with a disability" as this emphasizes the person first without denying the reality of the disability.
Terms such as cripple, spastic, handicapped, invalid are derogatory, offensive and you should avoid them.
Sometimes people with a disability are compared to normal people.
This implies that the person with a disability is abnormal and ignores the fact that everyone has their own unique identity and abilities. For comparisons you could say other people instead.
The Definition Of Disability
The most commonly cited definition is that of the World Health Organization in 1976(1), which draws a three-fold distinction between impairment, disability and handicap, defined as follows.
An impairment is any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function;
Disability is any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being;
Handicap is a disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or a disability, that prevents the fulfillment of a role that is considered normal (depending on age, sex and social and cultural factors) for that individual'.
According to activists in the disability movement, the World Health Organization has confused between the terms 'disability' and 'impairment'. They maintain that impairment refers to physical or cognitive limitations that an individual may have, such as the inability to walk or speak. In contrast, disability refers to socially imposed restrictions, that is, the system of social constraints that are imposed on those with impairments by the discriminatory practices of society.
Thus, the Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation defined impairment and disability in the following manner. An 'impairment [is] lacking part of or all of a limb, or having a defective limb, organism or mechanism of the body'. 'disability [is] the disadvantage or restriction of activity caused by contemporary organization which takes no or little account of people who have physical impairments and thus excludes them from the mainstream of social activities'(2).
According to the United Nations Standard Rules on the equalization of Opportunities for Persons with disabilities:
The term "disability" summarizes a great number of different functional limitations occurring in any population in any country, of the world. People may be disabled by physical, intellectual or sensory impairment, medical conditions or mental illness. Such impairments, conditions or illnesses may be permanent or transitory in nature.
The term "handicap" means the loss or limitation of opportunities to take part in the life of the community on an equal level with others. It describes the encounter between the person with a disability and the environment. The purpose of this term is to emphasize the focus on the shortcomings in the environment and in many organized activities in society, for example, information, communication and education, which prevent persons with disabilities from participating on equal terms.
The use of the two terms "disability" and "handicap", as defined in the two paragraphs above, should be seen in the light of modern disability history. During the 1970s there was a strong reaction among representatives of organizations of persons with disabilities and professionals in the field of disability against the terminology of the time. The terms "disability" and "handicap" were often used in an unclear and confusing way, which gave poor guidance for policy-making and for political action. The terminology reflected a medical and diagnostic approach, which ignored the imperfections and deficiencies of the surrounding society.
In 1980, the World Health Organization adopted an international classification of impairments, disabilities and handicaps, which suggested a more precise and at the same time relativistic approach. The International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps(3) makes a clear distinction between "impairment", "disability" and "handicap". It has been extensively used in areas such as rehabilitation, education, statistics, policy, legislation, demography, sociology, economics and anthropology. Some users have expressed concern that the Classification, in its definition of the term "handicap", may still be considered too medical and too centered on the individual, and may not adequately clarify the interaction between societal conditions or expectations and the abilities of the individual. Those concerns, and others expressed by users during the 12 years since its publication, will be addressed in forthcoming revisions of the Classification.
As a result of experience gained in the implementation of the World Programme of Action and of the general discussion that took place during the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons, there was a deepening of knowledge and extension of understanding concerning disability issues and the terminology used. Current terminology recognizes the necessity of
addressing both the individual needs (such as rehabilitation and technical aids) and the shortcomings of the society (various obstacles for participation).
Friday, November 23, 2012
Thursday, November 22, 2012
Thursday, November 15, 2012
Thursday, November 1, 2012
Rigid ankle foot orthosis one of its function is to minimize medial lateral instability at the ankle joint.